On Saturday, March 26th, I’ve attended IETF Tutorial on Interconnecting Smart Objects with the Internet in Prague. Not being actively involved in any organized research I was waiting for the tutorial with much anticipation. The event comprised several lectures by the most active Internet of Things researchers. Here are some comments.
First lecture was given by Carsten Bormann, a co-author of “6LowPAN The Wireless Embedded Internet”. The presentation contained many slides from that book actually. Prof. Bormann briefly explained the 6LowPAN Header Compression, Packet Fragmentation and Neighbor Discovery. These techniques are essential for running IP over 802.15.4. There are still substantial changes going on in these areas - for example early methods of Header Compression (described in the book) were obsoleted because of inability to compress global prefixes (the biggest part of the network traffic).
Second lecture was on routing in low-power and lossy networks (LLNs). It was delivered by JP Vasseur, the chair of IETF Roll group. The main topic was RPL protocol - new, specially designed protocol for routing in WSNs. The protocol looks completed at the moment, with no bigger issues to resolve. However the relationship between the RPL and normal 6LowPAN Neighbor Discovery looks very shady to me - both techniques seem to overlap in great deal. Even now Contiki RPL implementations run with ND switched off.
Third lecture, by Zach Shelby was devoted to Constrained Application Protocol. CoAP also slightly evolved since I first learned about it in Finland. For example SUBSCRIBE method was changed into an optional observation mechanism. What surprised me the most was the lack of enthusiasm of some of the participants (presumably other IETF members) about introducing a new protocol. It seems that IETF “rough consensus” is really rough sometimes.
Fourth lecture was done by Apple researcher Stuart Cheshire. He was talking about IP networks used to replace other short range connections (like USB) with no configuration necessary (service discovery performed through new technique - multicast DNS). The lecture included simple technological demo, that clearly shown Apple’s philosophy in design: it worked instantly, with no user configuration.
Fifth lecture was given by Adam Dunkels from SICS. Adam explained some Contiki concepts - protothreads, and Contiki MAC, and he did it in great style. It was fascinating to listen about the operating principle of protothreads (almost as if it wasn’t some high level C concept).
The last lecture was presented by Robert Cragie - ZigBee Alliance researcher. It was really interesting, as the ZigBee Alliance was recently forced (by some US energy related department) to adopt IP in its design. To accomplish that, ZigBee Alliance plans to develop new ZigBee IP “superstandard” based on 6LowPAN, RPL, and other IoT related technologies. Cragie pointed out current weaknesses of that approach - such as overlapping standards, and lots of optional parameters, that can prevent two devices from different vendors from communicating with each other. ZigBee Alliance wants to address these problems by describing exactly which standards and options to use. In my opinion, by developing a uniform IP-based communication stack ZigBee IP can become a real leader in the area in a couple of years.
The meeting was my first opportunity to see how IETF works (although the real IETF 80 meeting started on Monday). Some of the IETF members are true geeks, who remember some long lost Internet technologies, and dispute about every detail and usecase of the protocols. In today’s money driven world, this organization seems strangely out of place. But I think that because of that the future of the Internet is in good hands.